The city of Istanbul is also referred to as the Byzantium or Constantinople and is the most-populated city in the Europe and Turkey. A total of 15 million residents inhabit Istanbul, which is the largest city in the Europe and ranks 4th largest city on the globe. The history of Istanbul began around 660 BCE when Greek settlers from Megara set up Byzantium on the European side of the Bosphorus. The people built an acropolis next to the Golden Horn on the Thracian settlements, fueling Istanbul’s economy.
The city of Istanbul is situated in north-western Turkey on a total land area of 5,343 sq. kilometers. Istanbul is found near North Anatolian Fault, close to the boundary between the Eurasian and African Plates. Istanbul is majorly known for its Ottoman and Byzantine architecture and its buildings reflect various empires that have ruled the city previously.
Examples of Roman architecture remain visible in Istanbul as well as the Ottoman styles. Istanbul's foreign population is exceedingly small which was just 42,228 in 2007. Only 28 % of the Istanbul’s residents are authentically from Istanbul. The right-wing Justice and Development Party (AKP) has won majority in local and general election, since 2002. Istanbul’s electorate has also voted for the AKP government's constitutional reforms in 2007 and 2010 referenda.
With a PPP-adjusted GDP of US$301.1 billion, Istanbul ranks 29th among the world's top metropolitan areas in 2011. Istanbul's economy has been reported to be one of the fastest-developing among OECD metro-regions.